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Assessment of emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in Indonesia and impacts of national policy for elimination of kerosene use in cooking

Didin Agustian, Permadi and Asep, Sofyan and Nguyen Thi Kim, Oanh (2017) Assessment of emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in Indonesia and impacts of national policy for elimination of kerosene use in cooking. Atmospheric Environment, 2017 (154). pp. 82-94.


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This study presents an emission inventory (EI) for major anthropogenic sources of Indonesia in 2007 and 2010. The EI was developed using a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches with comprehensive activity data collected at the provincial/district level to produce spatially and temporally distributed emission of toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The sources were categorized into: 1) fuel combustion in power plant, 2) industry, 3) transportation, 4) residential and commercial combustion, 5) biomass open burning, and 6) non-combustion agricultural activity and waste disposal. The best estimates of the 2010 national emissions, in Gg, of toxic pollutants were: 1014 SO2; 3323 NOx; 24,849 CO; 4077 NMVOC; 1276 NH3; 2154 PM10; 1728 PM2.5; 246 BC; 718 OC; and GHGs: 540,275 CO2; 3979 CH4 and 180 N2O. During the period from 2007 to 2010, the national emissions increased by 0.7 e8.8% (0.23e2.8% per year), varied with species, with the most significant changes obtained for the biomass open burning emissions. For 2010 results, the low and high emission estimates for different species were ranging from �58% to þ122% of the corresponding best estimates. The largest range (high uncertainty) was for BC due to the wide range of the limitedly available emission factors. Spatially, higher emission intensity was seen in large urban areas of Java and Sumatra Islands. Temporally, dry months of AugusteOctober had higher emissions. During the first 3 years (2007e2010) of implementation, the national policy of elimination of kerosene use in cooking had successfully replaced 4.9 Tg kerosene with 2.6 Tg LPG in 30 designated provinces. The net emission reductions of different species ranged from 48 Mg (SO2) to 7.6 Tg for CO2. The global warming potential weighted emissions from the residential cooking alone, collectively for GHGs and short-lived climate pollutants in 20-yr CO2 eq., would reduce by 2%. More significant reductions in the residential combustion emissions are expected if the solid cooking fuel could be targeted in future fuel conversion programs. The benefits to human health resulted from the emission reduction of toxic pollutants from residential cooking could be substantial and should be assessed in future studies.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Karya Tulis Ilmiah
Depositing User: Asep Kamaludin
Date Deposited: 28 Aug 2019 03:10
Last Modified: 28 Aug 2019 03:10

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